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利用Dualex植物氮平衡指数测定仪研究灌溉种植系统中的硝酸盐

发布时间:2022-05-06 点击量:109

摘要:为了减少氮肥对环境的影响,改善其目前的低效率,目前农业中氮肥的使用面临着巨大的压力。近几十年来,硝化抑制剂和/或间作作物成为解决这些问题的有用工具。本试验的目的是研究这些技术对玉米-小麦轮作的产量、氮素利用效率(NUE)和氮素淋失的影响。研究了六种处理,将单独使用硫酸盐(ASN)或与硝化抑制剂(DMPSA或3,4-二甲基吡唑琥珀酸)以及使用或不使用野豌豆(Vicia sativa L.)作为间作。结果表明,施肥处理在作物发育方面没有表现出显著差异,但DMPSA的使用延迟了硝酸盐(NO3)的有效性,并减少了N淋失(玉米收获后平均N淋失减少约25%)。另一方面,将紫云英用作间作作物有助于减少缺氮的负面影响,同时在随后的作物收获期间增加土壤中的氮浓度(4.5 kg N ha)泈1)并减少了因淋滤造成的损失(玉米-小麦季节后,氮淋滤平均减少约14%)。这两种技术(DMPSA和vetch间作)的结合同时表现出协同效应,并大大改善了灌溉玉米-小麦系统的环境影响。

关键词:可持续种植制度;氮素利用效率;肥料管理;野豌豆;玉米小麦

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Figure 2. Chlorophyll (Chl), flflavonol (Flav), anthocyanins (Anth) and NBI indexes (all of them

dimensionless) estimated with the Dualex® for the different treatments along the maize cycle. Bars represent the standard error. Treatments were combinations of ASN, ASN + DMPSA (DMPSA) or no N fertilization (0 N) and the intercropping use (IC) or absence (C).

Nitrate Leaching in Maize (Zea mays L.) and Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Irrigated Cropping Systems under Nitrifification Inhibitor and/or Intercropping Effects 

Abstract: The use of nitrogen fertilizers in agriculture is currently under high pressure to reduce  its environmental impact and improve its currently low effificiency. Nitrifification inhibitors and/or intercrops emerged in recent decades as useful tools to combat these problems. The objective of the experiment is to study the effect of these techniques on the yield, the nitrogen use effificiency (NUE) and N leaching in a maize–wheat rotation. Six treatments were studied, combining the use of ammonium nitrate sulfate (ASN) alone or with a nitrifification inhibitor (DMPSA or 3,4-dimethylpyrazole succinic acid) and the use or absence of vetch (Vicia sativa L.) as an intercrop. The results showed that fertilized treatments did not show signifificant differences in crop development, but the use of DMPSA delayed the nitrate (NO3 ) availability and reduced N leaching losses (average N leaching reductions around 25% after maize harvest). On the other hand, the use of vetch as an intercrop helped to reduce the negative effects of N defificiency and, at the same time, increased the concentration of N in the soil during the following crop harvest (4.5 kg N ha泈1 on average after wheat harvest) and reduced losses due to leaching (average N leaching reductions around 14% after the maize–wheat season). The combination of both techniques (DMPSA and vetch intercrop) at the same time presented a synergic effect and greatly improved the environmental impact of the irrigated maize–wheat system. 

Keywords: sustainable cropping systems; nitrogen use effificiency; fertilizer management; vetch; maize; wheat

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